Our Process - How is CBD Made?
It All Starts with the Germination of Seeds at HempChain Farms
We use organic potting soil and carbon amendments to create healthy seedlings. Once the seedlings have grown strong, we then transplant them to our fields. All our fields have been prepared using organic fertilizers and sustainable tilling practices on land that has laid vacant for several years. All material is then harvested, dried and packaged in our 15,000 sqft Nexus Greenhouse on site.
All material is sent to our processing facility to begin the extraction portion. Here, we use a combination of the top of the line equipment for initial extractions of phytocannabinoids. This material then undergoes a series of post-refinement depending on the clients wants and needs.
Each order contains a Certificate of Analysis and Certificate of Quality Assurance from our internal laboratory using both liquid chromatography. Ongoing monitoring of representative batches through third-party labs is done regularly to ensure quality and accuracy of our internal lab.
FOR THE 2019 GROWING SEASON, WE ARE OPENING OUR DOORS TO EAST COAST FARMERS. IF YOU WILL BE PRODUCING CBD RICH FLOWER AND WOULD LIKE TO HAVE IT PROCESSED OR BOUGHT, SEND US A MESSAGE!
Harvesting Hemp in 11 Steps
CBD, as stated above, is manufactured from the cannabis strain, hemp. However, like any plant, this all begins with the seeds used to grow the plant. Only specific seeds are used in producing CBD which have been certified for growing. These seeds are low-THC containing hemp, which has been approved for the cultivation and extraction of CBD. These plants are bred for the sole purpose of producing CBD, and are planted at a specific time to prevent THC levels from exceeding certain amounts. Furthermore, they undergo rigorous testing to ensure that this concentration of THC remains low, to prevent and of the related psychoactive effects of THC making its way into the CBD oil. Through this testing, it allows manufacturers to provide the highest quality product, and ensuring that only the most premium hemp is cultivated, to make CBD oil with only the highest of quality.
Once the seeds have developed into harvestable plants, cultivation and harvesting begins. Cultivation is the process of taking these developed plants, and harvesting them for the adequate materials required for processing the CBD. The plants are collected by licensed farmers, and delivered for processing. It should be noted that, as stated before, these plants are rigorously tested to ensure that they meet state and personal guidelines. All of our plants go through this testing to ensure that, not only are they healthy and of good quality, but that they do not surpass specific levels of THC. We grow only specific strains of hemp and at regulated times to ensure that this remains the case, while still offering the highest yield of usable product. Only those plants with low THC resin are sent off to be processed and turned into usable CBD products such as balm and oils.
We at Naturae have our own genetics program and are starting to see what strains work best for the north east. So not only do we know all the best strains, we are diving into research to maximize potential.
Next comes the processing phase of the CBD production. During this phase of development, the hemp is prepped for the extraction of the CBD within it. The first step to processing Hemp for the production of CBD is by drying it. This is no easy task as the way in which hemp is cured can drastically affect its quality and overall usability. If hemp is dried quickly in a clean and dry environment, then the possibility of something going wrong and there being a loss of product is minimized. In contrast, if hemp is harvested in too wet conditions, or if they drying process is too slow, or has inadequate ventilation, or is damaged or contaminated by fungi, bugs or bacteria, the harvest could become spoiled and ruin the hemp and thus, the CBD product that could be produced from it. With this stage being so crucial to the production of CBD, it only makes sense that it would require someone well versed in growing and maintaining hemp to produce it. This is why it’s so important you find a company who you can trust that they know what they’re doing.
Once the hemp has been processed, it is important that only hemp rich in CBD be used for the actual oil production. What this means is that, of the plants that have been cultivated, we must choose the ones only with the most CBD. Choosing such plants ensures that the oils gathered from them are the purest, and thus, of the highest quality. Generally, the hemp grown is specifically bred to produce large flowers that garner large amounts of CBD, while ensuring that the content of THC remains low. By focusing on such plants bred for the purpose of CBD extraction, it means that you can have product that produced CBD at a more efficient rate. One plant of hemp specifically bred for CBD farming can produce more (in both quantity and quality) CBD than a standard industrial hemp plant used for making fiber. Only hemp rich with CBD can allow for the highest quality and purest oils, which is why it is so important that you seek out a company who doesn’t cut corners, and always provides the best for their customers.
5. CO2 Extraction
CO2 is used as an extraction solvent to produce the highest amount of target compounds with the least amount of undesirable compounds, in the shortest period of time. Supercritical carbon dioxide is a fluid form of carbon dioxide obtained where it is held at or above its critical temperature and critical pressure (87.98 F and 1073 psi, respectively). The near-liquid density of supercritical fluid increases the interactions between the substrate and the CO2. The gas-like property of the supercritical fluid gives it excellent mass transfer capabilities.
These features make supercritical CO2 an amazing solvent for extraction, as it can be passed through a solid organic matrix to pick up desired extractants. As a gas, CO2 loses its solvency power, facilitating separation from the solute. By changing extraction pressure and temperature, the solvent power and selectivity of supercritical CO2 can be changed to optimize an extraction for a species of interest.
Extraction of the oil involves using the entirety of the hemp plant to extract as much crude CBD oil as possible. This involves utilizing areas of the plant such as the flower and trim in order to extract as much crude CBD as possible. This oil, once extracted, can then be utilized in the refining process, where it can be refined into pure CBD oil. Because of this, it is important that only high-quality hemp bred for CBD farming is used. If improper hemp is used, then there could be a variety of issues that could set back manufacturers. Poor hemp could cause a lower quality CBD oil which could mean impurities.
Subcritical carbon dioxide is utilized when extracting yields with increased volumes of terpenoids, flavonoids, and other such volatiles. Subcritical CO2 runs at milder extraction parameters than other solvents, targeting those volatile compounds.
Following a subcritical run with a supercritical extraction completely scrubs the matrix of any remaining valuable compounds and achieves a full-spectrum extraction.
Once the crude CBD oil has been extracted, it needs to be processed and dewaxed. Crude CBD contains many different impurities found within the plant such as waxes, pigments, and other organic substances. This is where the process of dewaxing comes into effect. Dewaxing takes this crude CBD and, with the help of a few chemical compounds that aids in the precipitation of these undesired waxes, produces a purer CBD. Removal of the waxes within the solution increases overall CBD purity and the concentration of cannabinoids within the oil. From there, the oil is filtered from waxes, and a stable and relatively pure CBD oil is left behind. This oil can then be further processed and refined to increase its purity. Meanwhile, the left-over waxes produce a byproduct known as “hemp wax.” Hemp wax contains little to no cannabinoids, and can either be repurposed into other products, or destroyed. This process can be repeated many times in order to ensure that the final product is as pure as possible. After all, less wax means more oil, and more oil means a more effective CBD.
After removing the wax from the crude CBD, the next step to making pure CBD oil is filtration. Filtration is the next, and crucial step to dewaxing. Filtering removes further waxes from the oil, while still ensuring that the CBD contains as many cannabinoids as possible within the oil. There are many different types of filtration including gravity filtration, vacuum filtration, pour-through filtration, and wintered filtration, though all are effective methods of separating the wax, if done correctly. Regardless of method of filtration is chosen, the process usually is repeated multiple times until there is absolutely no wax within the CBD solution. In some cases, a centrifuge could be used which could greatly speed up the filtration of the CBD oil, however, this will still take some time to filter. Once the solution has been filtered, the solvent must be removed from the CBD.
The final step to producing pure CBD oil is by distilling the filtered product. While removing all of the imperfections is impossible by human standards, a final distillation of the product must be completed so that the produced oil is as close to pure as possible. The distillation is done through more careful vacuuming and temperature circulation. What this does is it isolates the different components found in the CBD, and allows for any final impurities to be removed and a mostly pure CBD oil to be produced. Once the oil has been fully distilled, it can go onto being either packaged as is or put into other products and sold in that manor. Regardless of how it is sold, it must go through these numerous purifying processes, otherwise the final product would be unsatisfactory, and could end up causing more harm than it ends up solving.
Formulations involve the process of adding this newly purified CBD oil to different products so that it may be sold. This process involves turning the oil into CBD capsules, selling it just as oil, selling it as extract, or allowing it to take a form that it may be used in vapes or even as an edible substance. Regardless of which form it takes, it is very important that the formulation be done by a trained professional, as to make sure that correct doses of the substance are given. As part of the formulation, the CBD is often deluded to meet the requirements of the client who is buying it, should it be purchased by a larger corporation. In this case, it is important that the formulation, as stated, be done by professionals with experience, as inaccurate measuring could cause unwanted effects, just like with any medicinal substance.
10. Types of CBD Oil and Distillate Products in bulk
Naturae Oils and HempChain Farms offer various types of products. Some of our products include: Crude CBD Oil, CBD Distillate, T-Free CBD Distillate, CBD Isolate, Water soluble CBD distillate.
From seed to product, it has been a long road to creating a viable substance that can be usable by the general public and professionals. The final step in this process is packaging it. By packaging our product, we ensure that you will be provided with the finest in CBD oils, and that we’ve taken pride in our work. Any oils that we feel do not meet our standards do not make it to this phase, meaning that the product that you receive has been hand checked and reviewed to ensure that it meets standards. After this testing and packing, we are ready to ship it out to whomever may need it, and are confident that those who use our product can take as much pride in utilizing something of such quality, as we are making it for you. We are more than happy to serve our loyal customers, and believe that a good product with no cut corners makes all the difference.
FOR THE 2019 GROWING SEASON, WE ARE OPENING OUR DOORS TO EAST COAST FARMERS. IF YOU WILL BE PRODUCING CBD-RICH FLOWER AND WOULD LIKE TO HAVE IT PROCESSED OR BOUGHT, SEND US A MESSAGE!